This study emphasizes the importance of rainstorm events in mobilizing carbon at the soil-stream interface from tropical rainforests. Half-hourly geochemical/isotopic records over a 13.5 h period from a 20 km tropical rainforest headwater in Guyana show an order of magnitude increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in less than 30 mins (10.6–114 mg/L). The composition of DOC varies significantly and includes optically invisible dissolved organic matter (iDOM) that accounts for a large proportion (4–89%) of the total DOC, quantified using size exclusion chromatography (SEC).

Rapid declines in summer Arctic sea ice extent are projected under high-forcing future climate scenarios. Regional Arctic climate engineering has been suggested as an emergency strategy to save the sea ice. Model simulations of idealized regional dimming experiments compared to a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission simulation demonstrate the importance of both local and remote feedback mechanisms to the surface energy budget in high latitudes.

Ocean surface waves can be major hazards in coastal and offshore activities. However, there exists very limited information on ocean wave behavior in response to climate change, because such information is not simulated in current global climate models. This study made statistical projections of changes in ocean wave heights using sea level pressure (SLP) information from 20 CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) global climate models for the twenty-first century.

Perfluorinated compounds impact the Earth's radiative balance. Perfluorotributylamine (PFTBA) belongs to the perfluoroalkyl amine class of compounds; these have not yet been investigated as long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs). Atmospheric measurements of PFTBA made in Toronto, ON, detected a mixing ratio of 0.18 parts per trillion by volume. An instantaneous radiative efficiency of 0.86 W m−2 ppb−1 was calculated from its IR absorption spectra, and a lower limit of 500 years was estimated for its atmospheric lifetime.

Black carbon (BC) aerosol loadings were measured during the High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) campaign above the remote Pacific from 85°N to 67°S. Over 700 vertical profiles extending from near the surface to max ~14 km altitude were obtained with a single-particle soot photometer between early 2009 and mid-2011. The data provides a climatology of BC in the remote regions that reveals gradients of BC concentration reflecting global-scale transport and removal of pollution.

The twentieth century Northern Hemisphere mean surface temperature (NHT) is characterized by a multidecadal warming-cooling-warming pattern followed by a flat trend since about 2000 (recent warming hiatus). Here we demonstrate that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is implicated as a useful predictor of NHT multidecadal variability. Observational analysis shows that the NAO leads both the detrended NHT and oceanic Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) by 15–20 years.

The natural environment is an important source of atmospheric aerosol such as dust, sea spray, and wildfire smoke. Climate controls many of these natural aerosol sources, which, in turn, can alter climate through changing the properties of clouds and the Earth’s radiative balance. However, the Earth’s atmosphere is now heavily modified by anthropogenic pollution aerosol, but how this pollution may alter these natural aerosol–climate feedbacks has not been previously explored.

During an 8 day drift in July–August 2012 in the Nansen Basin, all components of the energy budget of melting first-year sea ice were observed. Absorption of solar radiation by the ice and ponds was the largest source of energy to the ice at almost all times during the drift. However, oceanic heat flux also provided significant heating and dominated during one wind event. Longwave fluxes provided a relatively small cooling effect, and atmospheric heat fluxes were negligible.

This study compares observed and model-simulated spatiotemporal patterns of changes in Chinese extreme temperatures during 1961–2007 using an optimal detection method. Four extreme indices, namely annual maximum daily maximum (TXx) and daily minimum (TNx) temperatures and annual minimum daily maximum (TXn) and daily minimum (TNn) temperatures, are studied.

The potential for regional climate change arising from adoption of policies to increase production of biofuel feedstock is explored using a regional climate model. Two simulations are performed using the same atmospheric forcing data for the period 1979–2004, one with present-day land use and monthly phenology and the other with land use specified from an agro-economic prediction of energy crop distribution and monthly phenology consistent with this land use change.