Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are potent greenhouse gases. As HFCs have emerged as the pre-dominant alternative to ozone depleting substances, discussions are underway between the representatives of different parties of the Montreal Protocol (MP) to bring HFCs under the ambit of MP. The Open Ended Working Group (OEWG) of the Montreal

India is following the Hydrochlorofluorocarbon Phaseout Management Plan (HPMP) as part of its international commitment under the Montreal Protocol to mitigate consumption of ozone depleting substances. This transition is almost complete in developed countries.

Decentralised energy technologies have a vital role in extending electricity to around 80 million households lacking access to grid electricity and meet cooking energy needs of 49 % of the population which is still dependent on biomass fuels for cooking (Census 2011).

India has emphasised inclusion of adaptation as a part of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC). For understanding adaptation requirements, we need to understand and value climate change impacts first. This preliminary assessment tries to estimate the cost of global climate change impacts for India.

India has emphasised inclusion of adaptation as a part of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC). For understanding adaptation requirements, need to understand

CEEW's latest study 'Clean, Affordable and Sustainable Cooking Energy for India: Possibilities and Realities beyond LPG' analyses potential alternate cooking options, going beyond LPG.

This document outlines one component of India’s INDC submission to the UNFCCC focussing on the renewable energy contribution to its future electricity mix. So far, the
Government of India has articulated solar targets for renewable energy, which therefore deserves careful analysis.

The Minister for Environment, Forests and Climate Change, Mr. Prakash Javadekar said that Government’s initiatives, efforts, and action plans to pursue the clean and renewable energy path had put India in a leadership position in dealing with climate change issues.

The Indian power sector is remarkably characterised as one where electricity availability has always lagged behind demand.

India has witnessed a considerable increase in domestic consumption of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) over the years and the phenomenal rise in the number of LPG connections in the country is testimony to it. However, only 28.5% of households reported LPG as their primary fuel for cooking, during Census 2010-11.

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