Both fortress and community-based approaches to conservation have shown poor (sometimes negative) results in terms of environmental protection and poverty reduction. Either approach can also trigger grassroots resistance. This article is centered on an allegedly 'community-based' conservation and development project (and its successive follow-ups) intended to create a national park in Guinea-Bissau.
No news is good news, goes the proverb. The people of Guinea-Bissau disagree. The nation of 1.6 million people in West Africa has gone without newspapers for almost two months because of a paper crisis.