There is increasing concern about the fruit growth, development and quality of wax apple (Syzygium samarangense), a widely cultivated fruit tree in South East Asia. The growth and development of this fruit is sometimes very low due to low photosynthates supply at early growth stages. Growth regulators, hydrogen peroxide and phloemic stress are important tools to improve the growth, development and quality of horticultural products. The extracts of wax fruits, flower and bark have potent free radical scavenging, antioxidation, antimutation and anticancer activities.

Vegetation and peatland fires cause poor air quality and thousands of premature deaths across densely populated regions in Equatorial Asia. Strong El-Niño and positive Indian Ocean Dipole conditions are associated with an increase in the frequency and intensity of wildfires in Indonesia and Borneo, enhancing population exposure to hazardous concentrations of smoke and air pollutants.

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