Cochin backwaters, a micro tidal estuary, undergo a characteristic transformation from a river dominated system during summer monsoon to a tide-dominant system during pre-monsoon season. The present study observes that as the river flow weakens after monsoon, the flushing of the estuary
In 1971, meteorologists Roland Madden and Paul Julian studied weather data from near equatorial Pacific islands. To their surprise, tropospheric winds, pressure and rainfall oscillated with a period of about 40 to 50 days.
A Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a massive weather event consisting of deep convection coupled with atmospheric circulation, moving slowly eastward over the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Despite its enormous influence on many weather and climate systems worldwide, it has proven very difficult to simulate an MJO because of assumptions about cumulus clouds in global meteorological models.
Rainfall intensities measured at a few stations in Kerala during 2001–2005 using a disdrometer were found to be in reasonable agreement with the total rainfall measured using a manual rain gauge. The temporal distributions of rainfall intensity at diﬀerent places and during diﬀerent months show that rainfall is of low intensity (
indication of the relative prevalence of stratiform and cumuliform clouds.
In this article meteorological measurements in India are analysed showing marked trends of increasing temperature over the past quarter century, but significant variations in these trends during different seasons and over different regions of India. Marked differences between the variations in minimum temperatures in North and South India have been brought out.
Climate change is predicted to impact India's natural resource base, including water resources, forestry and agriculture, through changes in precipitation, temperatures, monsoon timings, and extreme events.