BRITAIN and China have finally joined the international ban on dumping nuclear wastes at sea. The two countries, Russia, Belgium and France had abstained when the London Convention - a

The presidents of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan, along with the Russian deputy prime minister have agreed to set up a joint fund to save what was once the world's

A SATELLITE that plunged into the sea is lying unclaimed and has become a point of debate between USA and China. The US Space Command says the satellite, launched by the Chinese on October 8, fell

Scientists have created the most realistic model of ocean currents yet and taken another step towards understanding global climate

COUNTRIES on the Pacific rim have asked Japan to use an ocean route well away from land when it begins importing plutonium by sea from France later this year. These include Indonesia, Australia, New

In 1993, Newfoundland will see an international conference on fish stocks as a result of a dispute between Canada and Japan and the EC

Observations made during the 1987 El Niño show that in the upper range of sea surface temperatures, the greenhouse effect increases with surface temperature at a rate which exceeds the rate at which radiation is being emitted from the surface. In response to this 'super greenhouse effect', highly reflective cirrus clouds are produced which act like a
thermostat, shielding the ocean from solar radiation. The regulatory effect of these cirrus clouds may limit sea surface temperatures to less than 305 K.

The study of climate and climate change is hindered by a lack of information on the effect of clouds on the radiation balance of the earth, referred to as the cloud-radiative forcing. Quantitative estimates of the global distributions of cloud-radiative forcing have been obtained from the spaceborne Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) launched in
1984.

The distribution of carbonate on the floor of the Pacific has been remapped on the basis of 1313 points from 80 references stored in the World Ocean Sediment Data Bank of Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Percent distribution maps and carbonate versus depth diagrams generally agree with previously published information and reflect the major controlling factors of carbonate sedimentation (depth, hydrography, fertility, and sedimentary processes). While carbonate distributions are of limited use in attempting to construct dissolution profiles, major trends are identifiable.

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