The document attempts to distil what is currently known about the likely impacts of climate change on the commodities and natural resources that comprise the mandate of CGIAR and its 15 Centres.

There is growing recognition that successful adaptation of agricultural production systems to changes in climate will depend upon the improved access to, and use of, genetic diversity.

Understanding the cost associated with climate change adaptation interventions in agriculture is important for mobilizing institutional support and providing timely resources to improve resilience and adaptive capacities.

The Commission on Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change has released its final report proposing policy responses to the challenges of feeding a world confronted with climate change, population growth, poverty, fluctuating food prices and degraded ecosystems.

Climate finance provides an opportunity to facilitate the adoption of agricultural practices that support climate mitigation and adaptation.

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and supply agreements in the agricultural sector have a significant role to play to promote agricultural climate change mitigation and decrease pressure on the earth’s land and climate.

Smallholders have important roles to play in both the prevention of dangerous climate change by reducing net global Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, and our global ability to adapt to climate change.

Worldwide, there are opportunities for agriculture to contribute to efforts to adapt to, and mitigate climate change, while also supporting food security and the fight against poverty.

The Commission on Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change was established by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) with support from the Global Donor Platform for Rural Development (GDPRD) to produce a clear and authoritative set of policy recommendations.

This chapter describes obstacles to financing mitigation in smallholder agricultural systems, and provides recommendations to overcome these; it also emphasizes how smallholder agricultural finances overlaps with carbon finance. Analysis and recommendations are based on literature reviews and the author’s experience.