This document explores the range of currently available and potential climate prediction products and services. It is intended for all audiences from policy makers to practitioners and users.

Models and physical reasoning predict that extreme precipitation will increase in a warmer climate due to increased atmospheric humidity. Observational tests using regression analysis have reported a puzzling variety of apparent scaling rates including strong rates in midlatitude locations but weak or negative rates in the tropics. Here we analyse daily extreme precipitation events in several Australian cities to show that temporary local cooling associated with extreme events and associated synoptic conditions reduces these apparent scaling rates, especially in warmer climatic conditions.

The West Antarctic Ice Sheet is one of the largest potential sources of rising sea levels. Over the past 40 years, glaciers flowing into the Amundsen Sea sector of the ice sheet have thinned at an accelerating rate, and several numerical models suggest that unstable and irreversible retreat of the grounding line—which marks the boundary between grounded ice and floating ice shelf—is underway.

The book is an addition to previous efforts by CTA to document and share proven practices, tools or policies that promote resilience and help farmers to address the challenges posed by climate change.

Mass loss from the West Antarctic ice shelves and glaciers has been linked to basal melt by ocean heat flux. The Totten Ice Shelf in East Antarctica, which buttresses a marine-based ice sheet with a volume equivalent to at least 3.5 m of global sea-level rise, also experiences rapid basal melt, but the role of ocean forcing was not known because of a lack of observations near the ice shelf. Observations from the Totten calving front confirm that (0.22 ± 0.07) × 106 m3 s−1 of warm water enters the cavity through a newly discovered deep channel.

Proxy-based indicators of past climate change show that current global climate models systematically underestimate Holocene-epoch climate variability on centennial to multi-millennial timescales, with the mismatch increasing for longer periods. Proposed explanations for the discrepancy include ocean–atmosphere coupling that is too weak in models, insufficient energy cascades from smaller to larger spatial and temporal scales, or that global climate models do not consider slow climate feedbacks related to the carbon cycle or interactions between ice sheets and climate.

Climate Services (CS) do not look back at a long history such as weather services, which have their beginnings in the 18th century originally focusing on meteorological observations for military reasons.

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Major atmospheric-driven catastrophes, such as hurricanes and floods, may appear to be independent events when looked at historically. Yet it is well established in climate science that regional weather and climate conditions in one part of the world can have impacts on other parts.

The Climate + Change handbook provides background information on the impacts of climate change in Bhutan. This document discusses the hazards that will be influenced by the changing climate and recommendations for action.

The waters of the Southern Ocean have absorbed much of the excess heat and carbon generated by humanity.

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