Societal risks increase as Earth warms, and increase further for emissions trajectories accepting relatively high levels of near-term emissions while assuming future negative emissions will compensate, even if they lead to identical warming as trajectories with reduced near-term emissions. Accelerating carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reductions, including as a substitute for negative emissions, hence reduces long-term risks but requires dramatic near-term societal transformations.

Develop the concept of aggregate emission targets, which are goals for national emissions but do not dictate the forms of regulation used to achieve the goals. Compare aggregate emission intensity, quantity, and price targets adopted at the national level but implemented cost effectively at the

The inaugural Asean Cooling Summit convened for the first time a diverse group of leaders from business, government, civic society and academia to discuss solutions for sustainable cooling in Southeast Asia.

The effectiveness of national energy policy will be decisive for achieving the objectives of the Paris Agreement and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Based on high-resolution models, we investigate the change in climate extremes and impact-relevant indicators over Europe under different levels of global warming. We specifically assess the robustness of the changes and the benefits of limiting warming to 1.5°C instead of 2°C. Compared to 1.5°C world, a further 0.5°C warming results in a robust change of minimum summer temperature indices (mean, Tn10p, and Tn900p) over more than 70% of Europe. Robust changes (more than 0.5°C) in maximum temperature affect smaller areas (usually less than 20%).

All car and van manufacturers met their carbon dioxide (CO2) specific emission targets in 2016, based on current European vehicle test rules, but they will need to continue their efforts to meet future agreed-to cuts.

Estimates of the EU's greenhouse gas emission budgets for the rest of the century vary considerably but have one thing in common: The EU's emission budget is very small and shrinking rapidly.

On November 8, 2017, the European Commission (EC) published its regulatory proposal for post-2020 carbon dioxide targets for new passenger cars and light-commercial vehicles (vans). The proposed regulation would be the third set of mandatory vehicle CO2 performance standards in the European Union (EU).

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is the world‘s largest greenhouse gas (GHG) offsetting mechanism to date. Although its future after 2020 is uncertain, policy-makers are currently considering the use of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) from emission reductions delivered in the period up to, and including, 2020.

Aridity—the ratio of atmospheric water supply (precipitation; P) to demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET)—is projected to decrease (that is, areas will become drier) as a consequence of anthropogenic climate change, exacerbating land degradation and desertification. However, the timing of significant aridification relative to natural variability—defined here as the time of emergence for aridification (ToEA)—is unknown, despite its importance in designing and implementing mitigation policies.

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