This fourth edition of REN21

A motorcycle that can run solely on sugar cane ethanol, gasoline or a mixture of both has gone on sale in Brazil, where biofuel cars already dominate the roads, burning cheaper home-grown energy.

This white paper synthesizes existing scientific data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the production and expansion of biofuels. It is specifically focused towards assisting organizations that are developing sustainability standards for biofuels with the collection and interpretation of data.

health Cracking the capsule Every year a million people, mostly aids and transplant patients, are killed by a disease called cryptococcosis, symptoms of which include chest pain, dry cough, abdominal swelling, headache and blurred vision. This disease is caused by the deadly fungus Cryptococcus neoformans which attacks immune systems that are already infected. Researchers have

Access to land for biofuel cultivation is often negotiated with rural communities. Ensuring that sufficient consultation and discussion are carried out and that agreements are respected is a big challenge. This case study from Mozambique illustrates some of the difficulties.

This briefing paper synthesises recent debates, focusing on socio-economic factors. To what extent were biofuels to blame for the food price spike? What opportunities do biofuels offer for the poorest farmers in the developing world? What are their socio-environmental risks? The paper concludes with policy recommendations to reduce the risk and maximise the opportunities

Recently the fuel ethanol production from crops has attracted much attention not only in the US, EU and Brazil, but also in Japan because the bio-ethanol is perceived as being "carbon neutral" and useful as a countermeasure against global warming.

India has many years of experience using renewable energy sources to fulfill the energy needs of its population. This includes exploitation of both traditional sources (such as biomass) and nontraditional sources (such as wind power).

A recent editorial in Science issued a call for a mission-oriented project, similar to the Manhattan project, for processing lignocellulose (plant biomass)

US ethanol producers have had no joy from the stock market. The financial figures of many are awful. Venture capitalists are holding back investment - preferring new fuel sources.