The technology for biodegradation of pig manure by using houseflies in a pilot plant capable of processing 500–700 kg of pig manure per week is described. A single adult cage loaded with 25,000 pupae produced 177.7±32.0 ml of eggs in a 15-day egg-collection period. With an inoculation ratio of 0.4–1.0 ml eggs/kg of manure, the amount of eggs produced by a single cage can suffice for the biodegradation of 178–444 kg of manure.

This study presents biogas production from fruit wastes at ambient temperature using anaerobic batch digester (500 ml). Co-digestion of fruit wastes were carried out with rice bran and cow dung. Biogas production from different samples was as follows: Sample A (fruit waste), 363; sample B (fruit waste, 75% + cow dung, 25%), 405; sample C (fruit waste, 75% + rice bran, 25%), 315; and sample D (fruit waste, 50% + rice bran, 25% + cow dung, 25%), 381 ml. From chromatographic studies, sample B has maximum methane content (80%) and sample C has maximum carbon-di-oxide content (50%).

One of the ways in which farmers can protect their soils is through the use of mulch. When the soil is covered with a
thick layer of organic matter, it is protected from extreme rainfall, winds or drought. Mulch also serves as a home for
insects, helping attract many species which significantly improve soil texture and soil fertility.

When looking at biomass power, we must keep in mind the alternative uses. The nexus between food, water and energy has to be viewed in detail. A country like India produces nearly 500 million tonnes of agro waste annually.
Such agro wastes are used. (Correspondence)

Biomass resources have significant potential for improving the rural energy access and economic scenarios in a country like India. These are the only sources of renewable energy available across the length and breadth of the country, thereby providing a local resource base for rural energy availability. Practically half of the income generated from the sale of biomass-based power goes back to farmers.

About half of the global gas and particle emissions to the atmosphere resulting from the burning of biomass originate from sub-Saharan Africa. There are four principal pathways: wildfires, the use of biomass fuels for energy, burning associated with deforestation and the burning of agricultural residues.

Fire plays important role in shaping ecosystem structure and function. Depending upon the complex effects of fire, it can have either beneficial or harmful effects. In this article, we briefly review the potential of satellite remote sensing data for mapping and monitoring vegetation fires.

Close to two-thirds of the world's poorest people live in rural areas. Eradication of rural poverty depends on increased access to goods, services, and information, targets detailed in the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. However, alleviating poverty is hindered by two interlinked phenomena: lack of access to improved energy services and worsening environmental shocks due to climate change. Mitigating climate change, increasing energy access, and alleviating rural poverty can all be complementary, their overlap defining an energy-poverty-climate nexus.

Coconut leaf vermiwash (CLV) was produced from actively vermicomposting coconut leaf litter + cow dung substrate (10 : 1 w/w basis) by Eudrilus sp. It significantly increased the seedling vigour index of cowpea and paddy at 1 : 10 and 1 : 15 dilutions in laboratory trials.

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