Combined, aviation and marine transportation are responsible for approximately 5 percent of total greenhouse (GHG) emissions in the United States and 3 percent globally and are among the fastest growing modes in the transportation sector. Controlling the growth in these emissions will be an important part of reducing emissions from the transportation sector.

Improving energy efficiency is a shared policy goal of many governments around the world. The benefits of more efficient use of energy are well known. Not only does it reduce energy costs and investments in energy infrastructure, it also lowers fossil fuel dependency and CO2 emissions, while at the same time increasing competitiveness and improving consumer welfare.

Rapidly increasing emissions of carbon dioxide from the transport sector, particularly in urban areas, is a major

Urban metabolism studies have been established for only a few cities worldwide, and difficulties obtaining adequate statistical data are universal. Constraints and peculiarities call for innovative methods to quantify the materials entering and leaving city boundaries.

Late last year, the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Indian Railways (IR) castigated the for squandering money on import deals which would not fully satisfy India"s needs for indigenisation of technology. Down To Earth discovered that though el

CAPITAL COSTS The capital cost of an electric loco is 3.22 crore. At least 7 MW is required to run an electric loco an the tracks. With Rs 4.25 crore per MW needed to set up one power plant,

It is a dramatic reversal of fortunes. A quarter century ago, cam and aeroplanes seemed to have flown away with the bread of railways in Europe and Japan. But now Europe appears to be on the

What, really, is the destination of the Indian Railways (IR)? Is it capable of meeting the growing demands? What is the reason behind the pathological dependence on import of high-cost technology? Is electrification the answer? G K KHARE, chairperson, Rai