This report presents findings from a study conducted to explore the synergies and trade-offs between built (i.e., engineered) and natural (i.e., ecological systems) infrastructure in the Tana River Basin, Kenya. The study considered hydrological, ecological and economic processes in order to value flow-related ecosystem services.

The Tana River is one of Kenya’s most important rivers. It is the principal water source for Nairobi, the capital city, providing water for hydroelectric power generation and irrigation. Several of the flagship projects laid out in Vision 2030 – the blueprint that guides Kenya’s national development – are located in the basin.

By altering evapotranspiration and influencing how water is routed and stored in a basin, natural and agrarian ecosystems affect river flow.

Food security in India is tightly linked to rainfall variability. Trends in Indian rainfall records have been extensively studied but the subject remains complicated by the high spatiotemporal variability of rainfall arising from complex atmospheric dynamics. For various reasons past studies have often produced inconsistent results. This paper presents an analysis of recent trends in monthly and seasonal cumulative rainfall depth, number of rainy days and maximum daily rainfall, and in the monsoon occurrence (onset, peak and retreat).

Wetlands contribute in diverse ways to the livelihoods of millions of people. They are often inextricably linked to agricultural production
systems. In many places, growing population, in conjunction with efforts to increase food security, is escalating pressure to expand

Rainfall variability is a key constraint to agricultural production and economic growth in many developing countries. This is likely to be exacerbated in many places as rainfall variability is amplified (even where the total amount of rain increases) as a result of climate change.

The construction of dams in Africa is often associated with adverse malaria impacts in surrounding communities. However, the