This report provides an overview of financial transaction mechanisms and related enabling frameworks that aim to protect and restore nature. The true value of the benefits that humans gain from nature is usually not reflected in economic transactions.

Climate economic modelling is a critical process that informs policy makers of the costs, benefits and potential trade-offs of climate risks and climate change adaptation on the economy. It can be useful to support problem framing, stakeholder engagement and awareness raising, and advocacy and communications related to climate change.

The Step Off the Gas report examines international public finance for natural gas expansion in the Global South and the choices countries face in how to develop their energy systems while meeting socio-economic needs.

Coral reefs have exceptional levels of biodiversity and provide important social and ecological services, including food, coastal protection, recreation, tourism, and cultural connections.

Transport is at the center of many economic and social development challenges, accounting for about 64% of global oil consumption, 27% of all energy use, and 23% of the world’s energy-related carbon dioxide emissions.

This report examines practical options for subsidy targeting in India by using a survey of over 900 households to analyze the distribution of LPG subsidies in the state of Jharkhand. It also examines various strategies to improve subsidy distribution and better target benefits to poor households.

Reforming liquefied petroleum gas subsidies in Indonesia would come with financial, environmental, and social benefits.

The scientific and policy debate on the potential benefits and risks of biotechnologies remains polarized.

This report looks at how governments should design their COVID-19 recovery support to the energy sector in order to achieve a fossil-free recovery that supports the achievement of the SDGs and net-zero commitments.

Indonesia’s comparatively low rate of taxation, exacerbated by falling revenues during the COVID-19 pandemic, has created significant fiscal problems. Well-designed transport fuel taxes can be an effective and efficient way to fill this gap, as demonstrated by experience in India.

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