The tribal and ecological history of India has been the history of forced transformation of the natural commons into private property engineered under both the colonial and post colonial state policy. In the following period of structural adjustment programme during and after the 1990s the state has opened the public domain for privatisation by the trans–national corporations and Indian small and large companies. Natural commons is being treated as capital.

Livelihood pattern of the people of an area is directly influenced by the local biodiversity. Biodiversity is essential for human survival and economic well-being, and for the ecosystem function and stability. Over exploitation and biodiversity loss affects livelihood and food security of the local. People change their livelihood strategies as an adaptive response to changes in their environment. Some livelihoods flourish while others diminish, and this ebb and flow is the result of a changing livelihood context.

Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) is situated in the Southeast of Bangladesh covering about 10 per cent of the total land. It is the native hoe of 13 tribal communities and these communities have their own traditional knowledge for natural resource managements. This paper provides 8 traditional knowledge namely, folk classification of landform, land use zoning, community reserve for common resource management, fuel wood selection for domestic use, water harvesting ditches, tree management in the jhum field by the Murang community, coppice management of Gmelina arborea Roxb.

Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) is situated in the Southeast of Bangladesh covering about 10 per cent of the total land. It is the native hoe of 13 tribal communities and these communities have their own traditional knowledge for natural resource managements. This paper provides 8 traditional knowledge namely, folk classification of landform, land use zoning, community reserve for common resource management, fuel wood selection for domestic use, water harvesting ditches, tree management in the jhum field by the Murang community, coppice management of Gmelina arborea Roxb.

The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity reports were born out of an initiative in 2007 to produce an analysis of the economics of biodiversity loss parallel to that of existing analysis of climate change. The reports do not preach to the committed environmentalist who already values nature.

It is important to understand the strong linkage that exists between food security, forest and resource conservation. Studies conducted over a decade in India clearly point to the fact that a majority of people in this country survive within a biomass based subsistence economy.

In a state such as Odisha in which Dalit and tribal groups comprise about 40 per cent of the total population, the issue of ‘access’ to land and resources has apparently been central to all conflicts. For traditional communities, ‘access’ is directly linked to civilizational paradigms and cultural ethos, which rather decide their ‘economics’, and not the other way round that may be true for modern, techno-centric civilizations. Most mainstream discourses of history have, however, tried to locate the crisis in the ‘absence of state interventions’.

30 villages in Andhra Pradesh are up against a coal-based thermal power plant being built by East Coast Energy Pvt Ltd on Kakarapalli swamp. The contested site is a marshy land with at least 40 middle-sized ponds and a vast area used as salt farms. About 30,000 people depend on it for survival.

This paper presents an overview of the distinctive features of communal tenure in different community-based land and natural resource management systems.

Read this special report published in Down To Earth on Nirma, the detergent company that gave false information to obtain clearance for its cement plant in coastal Saurashtra.

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