This policy brief is largely based on the World Atlas of Mangroves (2010) which provides a wealth of knowledge on the ecology, biodiversity, distribution, economic value, and management status of mangroves around the world.
Studying diversity and distribution patterns of species along elevational gradients and understanding drivers behind these patterns is central to macroecology and conservation biology. A number of studies on biogeographic gradients are available for terrestrial ecosystems, but freshwater ecosystems remain largely neglected. In particular, we know very little about the species richness gradients and their drivers in the Himalaya, a global biodiversity hotspot.
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are becoming an increasing problem to human health and environment, including harmful effects on natural and cultured resources, tourism and ecosystems all over the world. Marine raphidophycean algae, Chattonella spp., have been implicated in major fish deaths in various parts of the world and are regarded as the most noxious HAB species in Japan and China.