Thermo-erosion gullies in continuous permafrost regions where ice-wedge polygons are widespread contribute and change the drainage of periglacial landscapes. Gullying processes are causing long-term impacts to the Arctic landscape such as drainage network restructuring, permafrost erosion, sediment transport. Between 2009 and 2013, 35 gullies were mapped in a polygon terrace in the valley of the Glacier C-79 on Bylot Island, Nunavut (Canada), one of which was monitored for its hydrology. A gully (R08p) initiated in 1999 in a low-center polygon terrace.

Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important limiting nutrients for the growth of oceanic phytoplankton and terrestrial ecosystems, which in turn contributes to CO2 sequestration. The solid-phase speciation of P will influence its solubility and hence its availability to such ecosystems.

The swampy intertidal zone and part of the backshore of Henry's Island coast of 1969 have now been submerged. Topographic surveys, analysis of textural and palynological character of sediments coupled with time-series analyais of shoreline change show phasewise erosion. This has resulted in ingression of sea. Modern sand, transported from near coastal seabed, are being deposited overe the ancient clayey silt bed depending on retreat of high water line and relief. The shoreline has been retreated by about 450 m to 1 km.

Dams are being built in different sizes depending on the requirements and the height permissible at the particular site. The higher a dam, the larger the concerns for undesirable impacts that have to be mitigated and the assurance that has to be given to everyone that the dam is not a time bomb, the unfortunate sentiment that many tend to possess. Dams have multi-directional benefits that are much larger than the visible damage that it creates.

An important challenge in geomorphology is the reconciliation of the high fluvial incision rates observed in tectonically active mountain ranges with the long-term preservation of significant mountain-range relief in ancient, tectonically inactive orogenic belts. River bedrock erosion and sediment transport are widely recognized to be the principal controls on the lifespan of mountain ranges. But the factors controlling the rate of erosion and the reasons why they seem to vary significantly as a function of tectonic activity remain controversial.

The days when the gigantic Indian rivers — the Ganges, Indus and Brahmaputra — roar freely down the steep slopes of the Himalayas may be numbered. Roughly 300 dams are proposed or under construction in the deeply cut valleys of India’s mountainous north, part of a massive effort to meet the country’s spiralling energy demands. But the projects are facing fierce resistance from local communities, as well as from scientists who predict that the dams’ ecological impacts will be much greater than official environmental assessments suggest

A numerical model of salt marsh evolution shows that competition between mineral sediment deposition and organic matter accumulation determines the net impact of climate change on carbon accumulation in intertidal wetlands.

Small hydropower (SHP) being most reliable and environmentally benign energy technology or electricity generation plays an important role in development of a region/nation. Major portion of hydropower potential in India lies in Himalayan region.

Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate are regulated on geological timescales by the balance between carbon input from volcanic and metamorphic outgassing and its removal by weathering feedbacks; these feedbacks involve the erosion of silicate rocks and organic-carbon-bearing rocks. The integrated effect of these processes is reflected in the calcium carbonate compensation depth, which is the oceanic depth at which calcium carbonate is dissolved.

For long, widely divergent views (based on isolated pieces of historical evidence or broad geological evolution of the subcontinent, notably the rise of the Himalayas in mid-late Miocene), had prevailed regarding origin and antiquity of the Thar Desert. Studies of the past few decades have since provided a wealth of new information on landform styles, evolutionary processes and palaeoclimate history with chronometric and isotopic constraints. Salt lakes, dunes and calcrete-bearing alluvial aggradations have been the focus of interest.