This briefing paper reviews the status of motor vehicle energy efficiency and emissions control programs in G20 nations. These programs have four components: low-sulfur fuel standards; tailpipe emissions standards for new vehicles; fuel economy and CO2 standards for new vehicles; and voluntary Green Freight programs.
The primary objectives of this paper are to explore methods for testing and certifying the fuel efficiency of HDVs and vehicle components in the established and emerging regulatory programs around the world and the implications for India, as policymakers there deliberate establishing a performance standard of their own.
Black carbon is the second largest contributor to human-induced climate warming, after carbon dioxide. International shipping is a major source of diesel black carbon emissions and not yet subject to international regulation.
Heavy Duty Vehicles conforming to Euro IV and V standards frequently show poor real-world NOx emissions performance. Evidence indicates that new certification protocols in Euro VI resolve this problem, and Euro VI-compliant HDV NOx emissions meet expectations.
In many regions of the world, older, high-emitting vehicles account for a small percentage of the overall vehicle fleet but a disproportionately large share of total emissions. It is estimated that these vehicles may be responsible for more than 50% of particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) emissions by 2020 (Yan et al., 2011).
Marine vessels are a large source of greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions, including CO2, NOX, SOX, particulate matter and black carbon, which impact local air quality, human health, and the global climate.
On December 1, 2014, COMARNAT, the national regulatory committee of the Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources (SEMARNAT), approved a proposed update by
SEMARNAT to existing emissions standards regulating particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOX), hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) from heavy-duty diesel