Presentation by Dr. Mukesh Sharma & Umed Paliwal of Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur at Anil Agarwal Dialogue 2015: Poor in climate change, India Habitat Centre, New Delhi, March 11 – 12, 2015.

Presentation by Kirk R. Smith, Professor of Global Environmental Health University of California, Berkeley at Anil Agarwal Dialogue 2015: Poor in climate change, India Habitat Centre, New Delhi, March 11 – 12, 2015.

The atmospheric concentrations of 17 trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti and Zn) were measured by means of the "lichen-bag" technique in the Agri Valley (southern Italy). The lichen samples were collected from an unpolluted site located in Rifreddo forest (southern Italy), about 30 km away from the study area along the north direction. The bags were exposed to ambient air for 6 and 12 months. The exposed-to-control (EC) ratio values highlighted that the used lichen species were suitable for biomonitoring investigations.

Sustainable biomass can play a transformative role in the transition to a decarbonized economy, with potential applications in electricity, heat, chemicals and transportation fuels. Deploying bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS) results in a net reduction in atmospheric carbon. BECCS may be one of the few cost-effective carbon-negative opportunities available should anthropogenic climate change be worse than anticipated or emissions reductions in other sectors prove particularly difficult.

The variability of the levels of atmospheric particulate matter PM10 and its composition is assessed in the rural and urban zones of Mexicali during fall and winter 2008-2009, using a low level volume Minivol sampler, with quartz and Teflon filters. During fall the Mexican norm was exceeded (120 μg/m3 in 24 hr) in only two occasions, while in winter it was exceeded twelve times. The predominant component in fall was geological material with 62.5% for the rural zone and 48.5% for the urban one.

Punjab being a major agricultural state of India produces main crops such as paddy, wheat, pulses, barley, cotton, maize, arhar, mustard, rapeseed, sesamum, sugarcane and ground nut. Presently about half of the crop residue is being utilized for local needs like food for animals, home fuel and thatching materials. Remaining crop residue is being burnt in the field causing national energy loss, environment pollution and decreasing the land fertility. The annual production of total crop residue is 29.46 MT and total unused crop residue as 14.53 MT.

Livestock is poorly represented in N budgets for the African continent although some studies have examined livestock-related N flows at different levels. Livestock plays an important role in N cycling and therefore on N budgets including livestock-related flows. This study reviews the literature on N budgets for Africa to identify factors contributing to uncertainties. Livestock densities are usually modelled because of the lack of observational spatial data.

Biomass burning ia a major contributor to the atmospheric carbon budget and increases the concentration of many trace gases apart from the adverse effects on soil properties. However, in manyy parts of India, crop residue burning is a recurrent and widespread practice for disposal of the residues after harvest of the previous crop to facilitate sowing of the succeeding crop. The residue burning on a larger scale also leads to severe atmospheric pollution.

Original Source

Order of the National Green Tribunal in the matter of Vikrant Kumar Tongad Vs. Environment Pollution Authority & Ors. dated 25/09/2014 regarding controlling and preventing the pollution arising from crop burning. The Tribunal has asked the Additional Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture, Additional Secretary, MoEF and the Chairman, Central Pollution Control Board to finalise a national policy and place the copy thereof before the Tribunal.

Recent studies show that current trends in yield improvement will not be sufficient to meet projected global food demand in 2050, and suggest that a further expansion of agricultural area will be required. However, agriculture is the main driver of losses of biodiversity and a major contributor to climate change and pollution, and so further expansion is undesirable. The usual proposed alternative—intensification with increased resource use—also has negative effects.