Access to jobs, services, and people is key to a city’s economic vitality and quality of life. Many cities are experiencing a decline in accessibility due to a confluence of rapid urbanization and motorization trends.

Urban areas are expected to triple in size between 2000 and 2030. Unmanaged urban expansion increases the costs of service provision, deepens spatial inequities, and imposes heavy economic and environmental burdens. New analysis on 499 cities’ urban expansion confirm the challenge of rapid outward expansion are greatest in lower-income cities.

Cities are growing differently today than before. As much as 70 percent of people in emerging cities in Asia, Africa and Latin America is under-served.

This paper provides an overview of the available evidence on the link between the effectiveness of transport systems and economic, social and environmental performance.

Typical transport investment and policy proposals in India may consider factors such as connectivity with surrounding areas, land use and socioeconomic impacts, available funding, and the level of support from local stakeholders. All too often, these assessments consistently overlook the health impacts of transport.

Motorized two-wheelers - motorcycles, scooters, mopeds, and similar vehicles - are a growing form of transport in Indian cities. As such, the rise of motorized two-wheelers has significant implications for the future of public transport.