Over the past century forest regrowth in Europe and North America expanded forest carbon (C) sinks and offset C emissions but future C accumulation is uncertain. Policy makers need insights into forest C dynamics as they anticipate emissions futures and goals. We used land use and forest inventory data to estimate how forest C dynamics have changed in the southeastern United States and attribute changes to land use, management, and disturbance causes.

Carbon Pools and Multiple Benefits of Mangroves in Central Africa: Assessment for REDD+ provides the knowledge base for improving the management and reducing the deforestation rates of mangroves in Central Africa.

Warming occurs particularly fast in the Arctic and exerts profound effects on arctic ecosystems. Sea ice-associated ecosystems are projected to decline but reduced arctic sea ice cover also increases the solar radiation reaching the coastal seafloors with the potential for expansion of vegetated habitats, i.e. kelp forests and seagrass meadows. These habitats support key ecosystem functions, some of which may mitigate effects of climate change.

Advance biochar production technique, hydrothermal carbonization (HTC, wet pyrolysis) offers an option to tap the benefits of biomass residues of food industry characterized by high moisture and low calorific value. HTC is more energy efficient due to its low temperature operationsand higher biochar recovery rates (up to 90%).

Biomass combustion is considered to be carbon neutral, but intensive biomass harvesting may negatively impact carbon stocks in forest soil and vegetation, which can offset the benefits of substituting fossil fuels with biomass. Here we evaluated conventional stem-only harvesting, whole-tree harvesting (WTH), and WTH excluding needles in terms of timber yield, biomass harvests, and forest carbon sequestration.

Carbon sequestration has been suggested as a means to help mitigate the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Silvipastoral systems can better sequester carbon in soil and biomass and help to improve soil conditions. In the present study, carbon sequestration was quanitified both in biomass and soil.

Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly vanishing natural environments worldwide. They provide a wide range of ecosystem services and have recently become known for their exceptional capacity to store carbon. Research shows that mangrove conservation may be a low-cost means of reducing CO 2 emissions. Accordingly, there is growing interest in developing market mechanisms to credit mangrove conservation projects for associated CO 2 emissions reductions. These efforts depend on robust and readily applicable, but currently unavailable, localized estimates of soil carbon.

Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamics research sites (CTFS-ForestGEO) useful for characterizing forest responses to global change. Within very large plots (median size 25 ha), all stems ≥1 cm diameter are identified to species, mapped, and regularly recensused according to standardized protocols.

Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important limiting nutrients for the growth of oceanic phytoplankton and terrestrial ecosystems, which in turn contributes to CO2 sequestration. The solid-phase speciation of P will influence its solubility and hence its availability to such ecosystems.

This document summarizes the wealth of announcements on forests at the UN Secretary-General’s Climate Summit, including the New York Declaration on Forests, its associated voluntary Action Agenda, and a large number of supportive concrete action announcements.