This report reviews the terrestrial Essential Climate Variables (ECVs), which are endorsed by the UNFCCC and the Group on Earth Observations (GEO). Details are provided on why these observations are needed to understand the causes of climate change, analyse the potential impacts, evaluate the adaptation options and enable characterization of extreme events such as floods, droughts and heat waves.

This report provides an overview of information on the world fertilizer situation in 2007/08 and a forecast till 2011/12. The fertilizer situation is examined in relation to crop production and factors likely to affect the latter. High commodity prices experienced over recent years led to increased production and correspondingly greater fertilizer consumption as reflected in tight markets and higher fertilizer prices at the start of the outlook period. While demand for basic food crops, for high value crops such as fruit and vegetables, for animal products and for crops capable of being used to produce bio-fuels is likely to remain strong, it is expected that increased fertilizer consumption required to support higher levels of production will be adequately catered for by growing supply world wide during the outlook period.

International treaties and national policies seek to enhance global efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change. While it is important to continue to strive to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, mitigation alone is not enough and will not be felt before the second half of the century. Global warming is already underway and adaptation strategies are now a matter of urgency, especially for the most vulnerable poor countries, which are even now being disproportionately affected.

Land degradation is a global environment and development issue. Up-to-date, quantitative information is needed to support policy and action for food and water security, economic development, environmental integrity and resource conservation. To meet this need, the Global Assessment of Land Degradation and Improvement (GLADA) uses remote sensing to identify degrading areas and areas where degradation has been arrested or reversed. Within the parent LADA program, this screening will be followed up by field investigations to establish the situation on the ground.

This publication is the result of a joint effort by the FAO and the IFAD to address the linkage between water and rural poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. It takes stock of past experiences and demonstrates that there are many opportunities to invest in water in support of rural livelihoods. Its aim is to help decision-makers make informed choices on where and how to invest. It emphasizes the need for an approach where investments in infrastructure are matched with interventions in institutions, knowledge and finance in ways that yield optimal returns in terms of poverty reduction.

This paper aims to identify potential impacts of anticipated changes in climate on food safety and their control at all stages of the food chain. The purpose is to raise awareness of the issue and to facilitate international cooperation in better understanding the changing food safety situation and in developing and implementing strategies to address them.

This manual is developed to provide fundamental information about Codex in a standardized, logical and systematic manner. It comprises eight sections. Each section consists of specific training modules with a provision for the inclusion of optional modules that may be combined and customized to meet the requirements.

The Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) has met annually since 1963 to conduct scientific evaluations of pesticide residues in food. It provides advice on the acceptable levels of pesticide residues in food moving in international trade.

This paper focuses on the following areas: reducing methane emissions from ruminant animals (cattle, sheep) by modification of plant composition; reducing nitrous oxide emissions by making the use of nitrogen more efficient both in terms of going from soil to plant and in the animal; plant breeding may also enhance carbon sequestration in grasslands by focusing both on below ground traits of importance and on the composition of material returned to the soil as litter; and the processes involved in fertiliser production, particularly nitrogen fertilisers, result in considerable greenhouse gas

The project was initiated by ADPC in 2005 with the FAO. The work focuses on four upazillas in Chapai Nowabgonj (Gomastapur and Nachole) and Noagoan (Porsha and Sapahar) districts of North West Bangladesh.