Provisional FAO estimates show that the number of undernourished people in 2007 increased by 75 million, over and above FAO

Recent years have witnessed a rapid and accelerating expansion of bioethanol and biodiesel production. This expansion is driven by government targets for biofuel substitution in energy budgets for transport, driven in turn by concerns about high oil prices, prospects for rural development, export opportunities and means to mitigate climate change.

The State of Food and Agriculture 2008 explores the implications of the rapid recent growth in production of biofuels based on agricultural commodities. The boom in liquid biofuels has been largely induced by policies in developed countries, based on their expected positive contributions to climate-change mitigation, energy security and agricultural development.

Decrease in fisheries production likely

This publication is the result of a joint effort by the FAO and the IFAD to address the linkage between water and rural poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. It takes stock of past experiences and demonstrates that there are many opportunities to invest in water in support of rural livelihoods. Its aim is to help decision-makers make informed choices on where and how to invest.

The production of liquid biofuels is rapidly increasing in developing countries, due mainly to the establishment of large-scale biofuel feedstock plantations. This results in potential socio-economic benefits, particularly in terms of agricultural employment, as well as risks,which tend to be context-specific.

The scope of this paper is to identify a strategy for climate change responses in agriculture that are consistent with safeguarding food security, rural livelihoods and the

Fisheries and aquaculture play an important but often unsung role in economies around the world, in both developed and developing countries.

Biodiversity for food and agriculture includes the variability among living organisms contributing to food and agriculture, including also the forestry and fisheries sectors. This concept includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.