To accommodate high shares of variable renewables in an effort to address global climate change, the future power system would require significant enhancement in grid flexibility.

The gap between real-world fuel consumption and emissions of carbon dioxide from light-duty vehicles (LDV), and their laboratory values, is increasingly apparent around the world, including in China. ICCT has been tracking the gap between real-world and type-approval fuel consumption of LDVs since 2017.

This report, An Energy Sector Roadmap to Carbon Neutrality in China, responds to the Chinese government’s invitation to the IEA to co-operate on long-term strategies by setting out pathways for reaching carbon neutrality in China’s energy sector.

The Yangtze river and the economic belt it defines are central to China’s economy, yet they face severe environmental challenges. The river plays a major role in the historical, cultural, and political identity of China, and is a key driver of the country’s economy.

In Asia, where rapid urbanization is occurring, inadequate water and sanitation services are a problem due to insufficient investment. Asia’s urbanization rate has risen from 32.8% in 1991 to 51.1% in 2020, and more than half of the world’s urban population already lives in Asia.

In this paper, zero-emission heavy-duty vehicles refers to vehicles with maximum weight ratings greater than 3.5 tonnes (t) that are equipped with powertrain technologies that produce no tailpipe emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. ZE-HDVs are battery-electric and hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles.

A zero-emission zone (ZEZ) is an area where only zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs), pedestrians, and cyclists are granted unrestricted access. Other vehicles are either prohibited from entering or permitted to enter upon payment of a fee.

In the past decade, China has rapidly become the world’s largest electric vehicle market, accounting for half of the world’s electric vehicle sales and more than 90% of the stock of electric buses and trucks combined.

Energy service companies (ESCOs) deliver energy efficiency projects that are financed through the resulting energy cost savings. ESCOs can thus unlock energy efficiency action by addressing barriers related to funding and technical expertise.

This report analyses and compares the low carbon city policies and practices of China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea, with the goal of identifying sector-specific and city-specific good practices that may be instructive to researchers and policymakers in the wider NEA region.