To the world’s military leaders, the debate over climate change is long over. They are preparing for a new kind of Cold War in the Arctic, anticipating that rising temperatures there will open up a treasure trove of resources, long-dreamed-of sea lanes and a slew of potential conflicts.

By Arctic standards, the region is already buzzing with military activity, and experts believe that will increase significantly in the years ahead. Last month, Norway wrapped up one of the largest Arctic manoeuvres ever — Exercise Cold Response — with 16,300 troops from 14 countries training on the ice for everything from high intensity warfare to terror threats.

Countries of the Far North are set to be the new players in the emerging Arctic frontier.

Expanding cities threaten to eat up a swath of land the size of France, Germany and Spain combined in less than 20 years, putting the world under even more environmental pressure, experts said at a

LONDON: The impact of global warming could be similar across ecosystems, regardless of local environmental conditions and species.

The future of the International Whaling Commission is tenuous. A ‘whale conservation market’ might rescue it, say Christopher Costello, Leah R. Gerber and Steven Gaines.

An international team of researchers, including physical oceanographers from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), has confirmed the presence of a deep-reaching ocean circulation system

The new current, the North Icelandic Jet, feeds the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, a giant pattern known as the "great ocean conveyor belt," or by the disconcerting acronym AMOC.

Global warming will likely open up coastal areas in the Arctic to development but close vast regions of the northern interior to forestry and mining by mid-century as ice and frozen soil under temporary winter roads melt, researchers said.

Higher temperatures have already led to lower summer sea ice levels in the Arctic and the melting has the potential to increase access for fishermen, tourist

Stockholm/ Reykjavik: Iceland

Airlines canceled about 500 European flights on Tuesday as the ash cloud from the Grimsvotn volcano in Iceland drifted into northern Britain and Ireland, but a senior European official predicted that the disruption would not reach the scale of a year ago, when millions of travelers were inconvenienced.