Afforestation, the conversion of croplands or marginal lands into forests, results in the sequestration of carbon. As a result, afforestation is considered one of the key climate-change mitigation strategies available to governments by the United Nations. However, forests are also less reflective than croplands, and the absorption of incoming solar radiation is greater over afforested areas. Afforestation can therefore result in net climate warming, particularly at high latitudes.

The UNFCCC Secretariat has published the synthesis and assessment report on the greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories submitted in 2011. The synthesis and assessment is prepared in two parts. Part I provides information to allow comparisons across Annex I parties, as well as descriptions of common methodological issues.

This technical paper presents an overview of the quantified economy-wide emission reduction targets to be implemented by developed country Parties, as well as assumptions and conditions related to the attainment of these targets, and discusses comparison of the emission reduction efforts. This paper is intended to facilitate understanding of these assumptions and conditions.

As part of the Copenhagen Accord, Annex I Parties (industrialised countries) and non-Annex I Parties (developing countries) have submitted reduction proposals (pledges) and mitigation actions to the UNFCCC secretariat. Our calculations show that if the current reduction offers of Annex I and non-Annex I countries are fully implemented, global greenhouse gas emissions could amount to 48.6–49.7 GtCO2eq by 2020. Recent literature suggests that the emission level should be between 42 and 46 GtCO2eq by 2020 to maintain a “medium” chance (50–66%) of meeting the 2 °C target.

The simplest way to estimate CO2 emission from fossil fuel combustion is assuming that the carbon in the fuel is released into the atmosphere in the short or the long run.

The Cancun Agreement1 carries REDD+ firmly forward as a keycomponent of the post-2012 international climate change regimeby describing its main elements and operationalizing its initialphase. Before Cancun, many details of REDD+ were unclear, particularly concerning the issues of most importance to forest dependent people.

The purpose of this guide is to assist developing country negotiators and others who are working on REDD-plus. The guide is divided into three parts: Part I considers REDD-plus in the negotiations; Part II contains general negotiating tips for new REDD-plus negotiators and others ; and Part III contains UNFCCC documents that are often referred to in REDD-plus negotiations.

Paper industry generates green house gases in many stage of its operations; there is scope for implementation of CDM project preferably in forestry sector. JKPL's A/R CDM project under LULUCF category aims to GHG mitigation and sell emission reductions earned through carbon sequestration in the established agro-forestry plantations.

As part of the Copenhagen Accord, individual countries have submitted greenhouse gas reduction proposals for the year 2020. This paper analyses the implications for emission reductions, the carbon price, and abatement costs of these submissions. The submissions of the Annex I (industrialised) countries are estimated to lead to a total reduction target of 12–18% below 1990 levels. The submissions of the seven major emerging economies are estimated to lead to an 11–14% reduction below baseline emissions, depending on international (financial) support.

This latest assessment by UNEP spotlights worst case and best case scenarios up to 2020 while estimating the emissions gaps likely under various outcomes that will need to be bridged in order to avoid 'dangerous' climate change.