Crested Auklets (Aethia cristatella) and Least Auklets (A. pusilla) are crevice-nesting birds that breed in large mixed colonies at relatively few sites in the Aleutian Island archipelago, Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska, and Sea of Okhotsk. Many of these colonies are located on active volcanic islands. The eruption of Kasatochi volcano, in the central Aleutians, on August 7, 2008, completely buried all crevice-nesting seabird habitat on the island. This provided an opportunity to examine the response of a large, mixed auklet colony to a major geological disturbance.

This study details the capabilities of the IITM Earth System Model version 2 (IITM‐ESMv2), developed at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, India, for investigating long‐term climate variability and change with special focus on the South Asian monsoon.

Original Source

Grounding lines are a key indicator of ice-sheet instability, because changes in their position reflect imbalance with the surround-ing ocean and affect the flow of inland ice. Although the grounding lines of several Antarctic glaciers have retreated rapidly due to ocean-driven melting, records are too scarce to assess the scale of the imbalance. Here, we combine satellite altimeter obser-vations of ice-elevation change and measurements of ice geometry to track grounding-line movement around the entire conti-nent, tripling the coverage of previous surveys.

Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) is a measure of solar spectral extinction. Long term AOT data analysis gives a picture of air quality for that location. This type of analysis is useful in the study of impact of urbanization on local climate. Aerosols are one of the most important but poorly understood factors that influence global climate change (IPCC, 2001). This calls for a need to regularly monitor the global aerosol distributions and study how they are changing over time.

Since at least the 1980s, many farmers in northwest India have switched to mechanized combine harvesting to boost efficiency. This harvesting technique leaves abundant crop residue on the fields, which farmers typically burn to prepare their fields for subsequent planting. A key question is to what extent the large quantity of smoke emitted by these fires contributes to the already severe pollution in Delhi and across other parts of the heavily populated Indo-Gangetic Plain located downwind of the fires.

The West Liaohe River Basin (WLRB) is one of the most sensitive areas to climate change in China and an important grain production base in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. Groundwater depletion in this region is becoming a critical issue. Here, we used the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data and in situ well observations to estimate groundwater storage (GWS) variations and discussed the driving factors of GWS changes in the WLRB.

Original Source

Albedo—a primary control on surface melt—varies considerably across the Greenland Ice Sheet yet the specific surface types that comprise its dark zone remain unquantified. Here we use UAV imagery to attribute seven distinct surface types to observed albedo along a 25 km transect dissecting the western, ablating sector of the ice sheet. Our results demonstrate that distributed surface impurities—an admixture of dust, black carbon and pigmented algae—explain 73% of the observed spatial variability in albedo and are responsible for the dark zone itself.

By applying an inversion algorithm to NOx satellite observations from Ozone Monitoring Instrument, monthly NOx emissions for a 10 year period (2007 to 2016) over Chinese seas are presented for the first time. No effective regulations on NOx emissions have been implemented for ships in China, which is reflected in the trend analysis of maritime emissions. The maritime emissions display a continuous increase rate of about 20% per year until 2012 and slow down to 3% after that.

BEIJING — China is planning to complete the construction of a platform for supervising the "red lines" for the protecting important natural areas by 2020, according to the Ministry of Environmental

Satellite altimetry has shown that global mean sea level has been rising at a rate of ∼3 ± 0.4 mm/y since 1993. Using the altimeter record coupled with careful consideration of interannual and decadal variability as well as potential instrument errors, we show that this rate is accelerating at 0.084 ± 0.025 mm/y2, which agrees well with climate model projections. If sea level continues to change at this rate and acceleration, sea-level rise by 2100 (∼65 cm) will be more than double the amount if the rate was constant at 3 mm/y.

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