The five glaciers in Bavaria which today cover a total area of less than one square kilometer were frequently monitored by geodetic methods from the mid of the 20th century. In this paper, the record is extended by new surveys in 1999 and 2006. The glaciers show a prolonged surface lowering, which is intensified compared to the 1980s and reaches maximum rates from 1999-2006. Moreover, the ice thickness of four glaciers was determined in 2006 and 2007 by geophysical field techniques and allows the calculation of ice volumes.

Hypothesized drawdown of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet through the “bottleneck” zone between East and West Antarctica would have significant impacts for a large proportion of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Earth observation satellite orbits and a sparseness of radio echo sounding data have restricted investigations of basal boundary controls on ice flow in this region until now.

Rapid intensification (RI) of hurricanes is notoriously difficult to predict and can contribute to severe destruction and loss of life. While past studies examined the frequency of RI occurrence, changes in RI magnitude were not considered. Here we explore changes in RI magnitude over the 30‐year satellite period of 1986–2015. In the central and eastern tropical Atlantic, which includes much of the main development region, the 95th percentile of 24‐hr intensity changes increased at 3.8 knots per decade.

Precise descriptions of forest productivity, biomass, and structure are essential for understanding ecosystem responses to climatic and anthropogenic changes. However, relations between these components are complex, in particular for tropical forests. We developed an approach to simulate carbon dynamics in the Amazon rainforest including around 410 billion individual trees within 7.8 million km.

With the growing recognition that effective action on climate change will require a combination of emissions reductions and carbon sequestration, protecting, enhancing and restoring natural carbon sinks have become political priorities. Mangrove forests are considered some of the most carbon-dense ecosystems in the world with most of the carbon stored in the soil. In order for mangrove forests to be included in climate mitigation efforts, knowledge of the spatial distribution of mangrove soil carbon stocks are critical.

Crested Auklets (Aethia cristatella) and Least Auklets (A. pusilla) are crevice-nesting birds that breed in large mixed colonies at relatively few sites in the Aleutian Island archipelago, Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska, and Sea of Okhotsk. Many of these colonies are located on active volcanic islands. The eruption of Kasatochi volcano, in the central Aleutians, on August 7, 2008, completely buried all crevice-nesting seabird habitat on the island. This provided an opportunity to examine the response of a large, mixed auklet colony to a major geological disturbance.

This study details the capabilities of the IITM Earth System Model version 2 (IITM‐ESMv2), developed at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, India, for investigating long‐term climate variability and change with special focus on the South Asian monsoon.

Original Source

Grounding lines are a key indicator of ice-sheet instability, because changes in their position reflect imbalance with the surround-ing ocean and affect the flow of inland ice. Although the grounding lines of several Antarctic glaciers have retreated rapidly due to ocean-driven melting, records are too scarce to assess the scale of the imbalance. Here, we combine satellite altimeter obser-vations of ice-elevation change and measurements of ice geometry to track grounding-line movement around the entire conti-nent, tripling the coverage of previous surveys.

Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) is a measure of solar spectral extinction. Long term AOT data analysis gives a picture of air quality for that location. This type of analysis is useful in the study of impact of urbanization on local climate. Aerosols are one of the most important but poorly understood factors that influence global climate change (IPCC, 2001). This calls for a need to regularly monitor the global aerosol distributions and study how they are changing over time.

Since at least the 1980s, many farmers in northwest India have switched to mechanized combine harvesting to boost efficiency. This harvesting technique leaves abundant crop residue on the fields, which farmers typically burn to prepare their fields for subsequent planting. A key question is to what extent the large quantity of smoke emitted by these fires contributes to the already severe pollution in Delhi and across other parts of the heavily populated Indo-Gangetic Plain located downwind of the fires.