AHMEDABAD: Gujarat weather is marked by an arid and dry climate. But what kind of whether existed more than 10,000 years back?

Traditional architectural principles always respected nature, and was climate conscious, user-friendly, reflected the culture and tradition of the community at large and most important was contextual. Various parameters such as geographical location, climatic conditions, occupation, culture and tradition of the society/ community decide these principles in a specific set up and make the structures sustainable in all respect.

Daily rainfall totals are analyzed for the main agro-climatic zones of Sri Lanka for the period 1976–2006. The emphasis is on daily rainfall rather than on longer-period totals, in particular the number of daily falls exceeding given threshold totals. For one station (Mapalana), where a complete daily series is available from 1950, a longer-term perspective on changes over half a century is provided.

Based on 56 rainfall stations, which cover the period 1961–2008, we analyzed the presence of trends in the drought-affected area over southern South America (SSA) at different time scales. In order to define drought conditions, we used the standardized precipitation index, which was calculated on time scales of 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The trends were estimated following both a linear and a non-linear approach. The non-linear approach was based on the residual of the empirical mode decomposition, a recently proposed methodology, which is robust in presence of non-stationary data.

Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamics research sites (CTFS-ForestGEO) useful for characterizing forest responses to global change. Within very large plots (median size 25 ha), all stems ≥1 cm diameter are identified to species, mapped, and regularly recensused according to standardized protocols.

Frontal convection (FC) and diurnal convection (DC) are the two most frequently observed weather systems affecting the pre-summer (May and June, MJ) rainfall formation over Taiwan and Southeast China. Focusing on the time period of 1982–2012 MJ months, this study found that the occurrence frequency of FC has declined, but the occurrence frequency of DC has significantly increased over Taiwan and Southeast China. Diagnoses of the atmospheric thermodynamic conditions over the East Asian–Western North Pacific (EAWNP) region indicate that the area favourable for the FC formation (i.e.

Groundwater is essential to modern human survival during drought periods. There is also growing geological evidence of springs associated with stone tools and hominin fossils in the East African Rift System (EARS) during a critical period for hominin evolution (from 1.8 Ma). However it is not known how vulnerable these springs may have been to climate variability and whether groundwater availability may have played a part in human evolution.

The Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (CCAC) has released a report, titled ‘Time to Act – To reduce short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs).' The report details the causes and sources of SLCPs, and outlines the potential benefits of control measures.

Shale resources are unevenly distributed worldwide and, for the most part, not located where freshwater is abundant. For example, China, Mexico, and South Africa have some of the largest technically recoverable shale gas resources (based on estimates from the U.S. Energy Information Administration), but face high to extremely high water stress where the shale is located. This report analyzes water availability across all potentially commercial shale resources worldwide. It also reveals that water availability could limit shale resource development on every continent except Antarctica.

Urbanisation modifies landscapes at multiple scales, impacting the local climate and changing the extent and quality of natural habitats. These habitat modifications significantly alter species distributions and can result in increased abundance of select species which are able to exploit novel ecosystems. We examined the effect of urbanisation at local and landscape scales on the body size, lipid reserves and ovary weight of Nephila plumipes, an orb weaving spider commonly found in both urban and natural landscapes.