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The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has alleged that Volkswagen Group of America (VW) violated the Clean Air Act (CAA) by developing and installing emissions control system 'defeat devices' (software) in model year 2009–2015 vehicles with 2.0 litre diesel engines. VW has admitted the inclusion of defeat devices. On-road emissions testing suggests that in-use NOx emissions for these vehicles are a factor of 10 to 40 above the EPA standard. In this paper we quantify the human health impacts and associated costs of the excess emissions.

Order of the Federal Court of Australia in the matter of Mackay Conservation Group Vs The Commonwealth of Australia & Others dated 04/08/2015 regarding Australian Government’s approval of Adani’s Carmichael coal mine in central Queensland.

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The research and development costs of 68 randomly selected new drugs were obtained from a survey of 10 pharmaceutical firms. These data were used to estimate the average pre-tax cost of new drug development. The costs of compounds abandoned during testing were linked to the costs of compounds that obtained marketing approval. The estimated average out-of-pocket cost per new drug is US$ 403 million (2000 dollars). Capitalizing out-of-pocket costs to the point of marketing approval at a real discount rate of 11% yields a total pre-approval cost estimate of US$ 802 million (2000 dollars).

Order of the Bombay High Court dated 30/06/2015 in the matter of Nestle India Ltd. V. FSSAI & Ors allowing Maggi noodles to be exported.

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M/S Nestle India Ltd. is aware of the currently on-going nation-wide concerns regarding the safety of its food products cited under the above subject.

Continuing high consumption of livestock products in nearly all developed countries, and increasing demand for livestock-based foods in large transition economies, are creating serious problems of prolonged and persistent environmental and social degradation. These problems are further exacerbated and affected by climate change and risks, biodiversity loss, water stress, and water pollution.

Though there are criminal remedies specifically for trademark and copyright infringement the same is not a mandate in case of patent infringement. Article 61 of TRIPS, is the sole article containing requirements for criminal procedures that signatories to the Agreement may implement.

Adapting to climate change requires the engagement of all actors in society. Until recently, predominant research focus has been on governments, communities and the third sector as key actors in the adaptation process.

An investigation by The BMJ has uncovered evidence of the extraordinary extent to which key public health experts are involved with the sugar industry and related companies responsible for many of the products blamed for the obesity crisis through research grants, consultancy fees, and other forms of funding.

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Businesses are actively and successfully adding renewable energy to their own facilities and increasingly entering into contracts to buy or invest in offsite renewable energy.

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