Amidst debates between the North and the South, Emission Trading (ET), Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), and Joint Implementation (JI) were adopted as flexible mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol. These mechanisms allow developed countries to meet their emission reduction targets by investing in clean projects in other countries of their choice.

This report begin with a discussion of the dynamics between developing and developed countries that have influenced the debates. This is then followed with a description of the financial mechanisms, requirement for short and long-term funds, and problems with the current institutional arrangements.

Urbanization and climate change will define much of the 21st century. Urbanization leads to improvement in standards of living, and through the increased density and service delivery efficiency of cities, higher growth can be achieved with lower greenhouse gas emissions. Cities and urban agglomerations

This State of the Forest Carbon Markets report presents new trends in global forest carbon offset markets that have not, until now, been comprehensively documented. This report was created to increase transparency and answer fundamental questions about the supply of forestry-based carbon credits, such as transaction volumes, credit prices, hectares influenced and tenure rights.

The objective of the periodic verification is to verify that actual monitoring systems and procedures are in compliance with the monitoring systems and procedures described in the monitoring 4th JI Verification of the project:

Carbon trading lies at the centre of global climate policy and is projected to become one of the world

This paper first reviews proposals for the design of sectoral and related market mechanisms currently debated, both in the UNFCCC negotiations, and in different domestic legislative contexts. Secondly, it addresses the possible principles and technical requirements that Parties may wish to consider as the foundations for further elaboration of the mechanisms.

The full legal text of the NGO Copenhagen Treaty written by a team of 47 experts from environment and development groups across the world, including Greenpeace.It is a work in progress, but is meant to encourage and provoke countries into thinking hard about the level of ambition, scope and detail that needs to be agreed in Copenhagen, the path to get us there and what comes afterwards.

This Draft Discussion Paper is intended to provide the climate negotiators with key recommendations on how to include land transport in the climate change negotiations of the Bali Action Plan. Most of the ideas are also relevant to freight transport as well as other modes such as air and maritime. This document reflects the current state of the negotiations.

This background paper provides an overview of the role and profile of international carbon market mechanisms in a new international post-2012 climate change agreement. The paper first reviews the three market-based instruments under the Kyoto Protocol and then examines a range of possible market mechanisms under consideration in the international climate change negotiations.