Past atmospheric methane concentrations show strong fluctuations in parallel to rapid glacial climate changes in the Northern Hemisphere, superimposed on a glacial

Abstract Black carbon in soot is the dominant absorber of visible solar radiation in the atmosphere. Anthropogenic sources of black carbon, although distributed globally, are most concentrated in the tropics where solar irradiance is highest. Black carbon is often transported over long distances, mixing with other aerosols along the way. The aerosol mix can form transcontinental plumes of atmospheric brown clouds, with vertical extents of 3 to 5 km.

Rice is the most important Kharif crop of Punjab. With the increase in production of rice there is concomitant increase in the production of residue (rice straw), which is approximately 18.75 MT. About 80 percent of the rice residue it burnt in the fields, particularly after harvesting rice by combine harvesters.

Residue burning practice is followed in major Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. Agricultural residue burning in the fields and used otherwise for rural domestic needs is responsible for a large number of toxic emissions, which are a health hazard.

The dismal situation and poor quality of life in rural India is because of unavailability of energy. It is shown that sophisticated technology can help solve this and other problems of rural areas. A call is made to the global technological community to help provide such technologies. Finally issues of how much energy is needed for sustainable development are discussed.

The relationship between climate change and cities is complex. City-based activities contribute significant amounts of greenhouse gases and, simultaneously, are often more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Dhaka is now the world's eighth largest city and a significant proportion of Bangladesh's greenhouse gases are generated there although, relative to total emissions worldwide, the contribution is negligible.

Tobacco smoking, passive smoking, and indoor air pollution from biomass fuels have been implicated as risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) infection, disease, and death. Tobacco smoking and indoor air pollution are persistent or growing exposures in regions where TB poses a major health risk.

Deforestation for free

Biofuels for transport, including ethanol, biodiesel, and several other liquid and gaseous fuels, have the potential to displace a substantial amount of petroleum around the world over the next few decades, and a clear trend in that direction has begun. This report looks both at recent trends and at the outlook for the future, in terms of potential biofuels production. It also

Majority of rural households in India use only kerosene for lighting. Most of the lamps are hurricane-type, which produce very poor light intensity of about 60