Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide will almost certainly lead to changes in global mean climate. But because - by defnition-extreme events are rare, it is significantly more difficult to quantify the risk of extremes.

Radiative effects of anthropogenic changes in atmospheric composition are expected to cause climate changes, in particular an intensification of the global water cycle with a consequent increase in flood risk.

The methodology and results reported in this study form a first comprehensive and integrated global ecological

All ecosystems are exposed to gradual changes in climate, nutrient loading, habitat fragmentation or biotic exploitation. Nature is usually assumed to respond to gradual change in a smooth way. However, studies on lakes, coral reefs, oceans, forests and arid lands have shown that smooth change can be interrupted by sudden drastic switches to a contrasting state. Although diverse events can trigger such shifts, recent studies show that a loss of resilience usually paves the way for a switch to an alternative state.

The incidence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Sweden has substantially increased since the mid-1980s. During the same period the climate has become milder and ticks have become more abundant. We investigated whether there is a link between the change in climate and the increase in incidence of TBE.

This study looks at the linkages between dams and climate change. It analyses the climate change legal regime as represented by the UN Framework Convention on Climate
Change and its Kyoto Protocol and attempts to highlight the relevance of its provisions, decisions and processes to the planning, appraisal, design, construction, operation and

Briefing paper on climate change for members of Parliament by Anil Agarwal - Calling upon policy makers to recognise India's stake in the international climate change negotiations.

This paper explores the potential implications of climate change for the use and management of water resources in Britain. It is based on a review of simulations of changes in river flows, groundwater recharge and river water quality. These simulations imply, under feasible climate change scenarios, that annual, winter and summer runoff will decrease in southern Britain, groundwater recharge will be reduced and that water quality – as characterised by nitrate concentrations and dissolved oxygen contents – will deteriorate.

In the last decade pan evaporation measured at the Southern Dead Sea has significantly increased. Wind, temperature and humidity measurements at the Dead Sea starting in the 1930s as well as 3-D model simulations all seem to indicate a statistically significant change in the local climate of the Dead Sea region. The potential contribution to this climatic change through the weakening of the local land-sea breeze circulation caused by the reduction in the Dead Sea surface area in 1979–1981, is examined.

To study the role of snow and ice in the global watercycle and in the world climatic system, research methods should be further standardized and inform from different region integrated. Representing these field of research, the International Commission on Snow and Ice (ICSI) has already made some guideline studies on the runoff prediction and evaluation.