The provision of reliable and adequate drinking water services in rural communities is important. Here, the researchers reported on a study that evaluated the respondents’ willingness to pay for water services in the two communities in Mutale Local Municipality, South Africa. The study was accomplished through open-ended questionnaire interviews with selected respondents. The study showed that respondents were dissatisfied with the unreliable water services (89.9%) but were willing to pay for water services to secure reliable water services (95.5%).

A research on gender in sheep and goat keeping was conducted in Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu to assess gender roles in participation and decision making. Data was collected from the sample size of 233 respondents using a well structured pretested interview schedule. The study revealed that most of the regular activities in sheep and goat keeping were performed by women while the occasional activities by men, although, women participated to a certain extent. Decisions on all the regular activities were taken independently by women.

Adoption of animal health care practices remains poor and there is no centralized agency to monitor the animal health care scheme in Kumaon region. To investigate some of the root causes, a study on farmer participation in animal health and vaccination camps and factors affecting its participation was conducted. The respondents were male and female livestock owners of Kumaon region from 15 villages at different altitude, who participated in the animal health camps and were randomly interviewed. A logistic regression approach was used to analyze the participation decision.

The Tangkhul Nagas are intricately bound to nature in their social, cultural, economic, ethical and religious values. The dynamics of Tangkhul’s livelihood activities in many ways reflect the complexities of the human and nature relationship. Interactions between human and nature have undergone significant changes during the last century which leaves unwarranted impact on its natural environment. Today increasing scarcity of natural resources is serious in Tangkhul Naga society.

The future of urbanization points to increasing agglomeration forces through which towns and cities merge into huge continuously built up areas with variations in the diversity of economic activity. This paper reports the results of a study of urban agglomeration trends in Eastern Africa and the implications for urban policy and planning.

The world’s climate is changing and will continue to change in the coming century at rates projected to be unprecedented in recent human history. The risks associated with these changes are real but highly uncertain. Societal vulnerability to the risks associated with climate change may exacerbate ongoing social and economic challenges, particularly for those parts of society dependent on resources that are sensitive to changes in climate. The main thrust of this paper is on the risk management and challenges of climate change in Nigeria.

India’s food and nutrition problems continue to be formidable and malnutrition is still one of the crucial problems in the process of development. The magnitude of malnutrition and the ignorance about the relationship between food and health among a majority of the population at all levels necessitates the need for nutrition education. This approach in the long term may promote self-reliance and self-support in the communities.

The present investigation entitled ‘Chemical contamination of water due to household laundry detergents was conducted to study the chemical contribution of laundry detergents to waste water. Six most commonly used laundry detergents, 4 powder and 2 liquid detergents were selected to study the chemical input of each to waste water stream from home laundry. Chemical analysis of wash water and detergent solution was done to analyse pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride, sulphate, carbonate and bicarbonate alkalinity.

Prosperity of nation depends on status of its women, as they not only constitute nearly half of its population, but also positively influence growth of remaining half of population. Hence, a study was conducted to study personal profile of women farmers, per formance of women in tea cu ltivation, potato cultivation and livestock activities. Physiological assessment was done in terms of RPE and REBA. By simple random sampling, 30 women were selected in Nilgiri district. Seventy percent were 30 years of age and educated up to high school.

Agriculture sector contributes a major portion in gross production of India. In spite of this, agriculture today is finding itself in increasing difficulties. The adverse impact of agriculture based on synthetic fertilizers and herbicides is visible in the degradation of soil fertility, quality of food, taste of food and so on. Organic agriculture may prove to be a boon to curb these adverse effects. There is dearth of information on organic farming in India in general and in Uttarakhand in particular.