A 2013 scientific assessment of black carbon emissions and impacts found that black carbon is second to carbon dioxide in terms of its climate forcing. High concentrations of black carbon in the atmosphere can change precipitation patterns and reduce the amount of radiation that reaches the Earth's surface, which affects local agriculture. Acute and chronic exposures to particulate matter are associated with a range of diseases, including chronic bronchitis and asthma, as well as premature deaths from cardiopulmonary disease, lung cancer, and acute lower respiratory infections. The transportation sector accounted for approximately 19 percent of global black carbon emissions in the year 2000. This report aims to inform efforts to control black carbon emissions from diesel-based transportation in developing countries. It presents a summary of emissions control approaches from developed countries, while recognizing that developing countries face a number of on-the-ground implementation challenges. A cost-benefit framework for economic analysis of diesel black carbon emissions control transport projects is also presented that factors in both climate and health benefits.

Faced with increasing extreme weather events and changing traditional weather patterns due to climate change, the power sector has become disturbingly vulnerable, making climate risks assessment, building resilience in electricity infrastructure and the development of new business models, a priority.

The Sheltering From a Gathering Storm project aims to improve understanding of the costs and benefits of climate resilient housing and contribute to the transformative change necessary to make communities more resilient to future disasters.

There is a lack of holistic frameworks to help climate change adaptation practitioners identify and implement CCA (climate change adaptation) actions. Keeping this in view, several frameworks for CCA decision making have evolved in recent years.

Scientific and business communities increasingly recognize that climate change is causing weather extremes and precipitating natural disasters, such as the European heat wave of 2003, the drought in East Africa in

Watershed development, an ecosystem-based approach for development of rain-fed regions in India, is gaining traction and political support, but how is it contributing to poverty reduction, food security, and climate change adaptation?

The 2013 Auto Fuel Policy Committee is charged with establishing a roadmap for vehicle emission and fuel quality standards in India through 2025.

Maternal undernutrition contributes to 800 000 neonatal deaths annually through small for gestational age births; stunting, wasting, and micronutrient deficiencies are estimated to underlie nearly 3·1 million child deaths annually. Progress has been made with many interventions implemented at scale and the evidence for effectiveness of nutrition interventions and delivery strategies has grown.

Uganda’s wetlands are an important stock of natural capital producing goods and services that have economic value. Despite the need to conserve them, their loss to unsustainable resource utilization activities has continued because they are considered to have little or no economic value. This study aimed at highlighting the economic importance of three wetlands within the Kampala-Mukono Corridor (KMC) and the economic implications of their degradation to the Local Administration and people’s livelihoods.

This report evaluates the principal costs and benefits of the European Union’s biofuels industry, based on an assessment of best available information. Depending on the availability of data, some costs and benefits are quantified, while others have not been due to a lack of systematic or disaggregated information.