Understanding the cost associated with climate change adaptation interventions in agriculture is important for mobilizing institutional support and providing timely resources to improve resilience and adaptive capacities.
This report documents in detail the results of two case studies on the costs and benefits of investments in reducing climate-related and other disaster risks—one in Vietnam and one in Nepal—and briefly describes the community based
Tropospheric ozone and black carbon (BC) contribute to both degraded air quality and global warming. We considered ~400 emission control measures to reduce these pollutants by using current technology and experience. We identified 14 measures targeting methane and BC emissions that reduce projected global mean warming ~0.5°C by 2050. This strategy avoids 0.7 to 4.7 million annual premature deaths from outdoor air pollution and increases annual crop yields by 30 to 135 million metric tons due to ozone reductions in 2030 and beyond.
Economic criteria shape investments in drinking-water supply systems and services. Yet, often they may be defined in a narrow sense and economic returns may be evaluated in strictly financial terms. The result is an emphasis on large, urban infrastructural works.
A report, titled Growing Food, Products and Businesses, sheds new light on the ways in which agribusiness incubators are fostering the modernization and scaling-up of agribusiness in the developing world.
Motorized three-wheelers play an important role in various Asian cities and towns. In the Philippines, these three-wheelers are called tricycles and primarily serve as feeders for residential and minor roads. However, in several towns in rural areas these tricycles serve as the main mode for transporting people all around town.