As cities continue to expand and ever more people migrate to urban areas, current unsustainable patterns of urbanisation and ineffective policies are no longer acceptable. The typical approaches that maintain the separation between rural and urban neglect all of the ways that connect both worlds. And nowhere else are rural and urban areas more linked than within the food system.

Original Source

Surveys and interviews were used to understand community resilience in forest-dependent communities facing climate change in Cameroon. Surveys of 232 individuals showed a diversity of formal and informal institutions that relate to most aspects of rural life. Although direct activities related to climate change adaptation were limited, the activities and density of membership in rural local institutions could increase the community’s adaptive capacity.

Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are the prime cause of climate change, to which India is a significant party. International Energy Agency, in its World Energy Outlook report estimates that 70% of the GHGs are produced within the cities. But there is limited empirical evidence to substantiate such claims in the Indian context. India being a developing country with a large rural population base, the general perception is that cities hardly have any carbon footprint. This article is an empirical study of urban contribution of carbon dioxide emissions.

Debates on emissions and climate change are dominated by inter-country inequalities, usually ignoring within-country inequalities. In this paper, we address the question of carbon space sharing in India across different classes after economic reforms were introduced in 1991. We establish using household consumption surveys that the elites in India are major polluters both in an absolute sense as well as in per capita terms. We find that inter-class component of emissions now explains 28.5% of total inequality compared to a mere 2.5% in 1994 at the onset of market-oriented reforms.

Great progress has been made in expanding financial inclusion. The number of people worldwide having an account grew by 700 million between 2011 and 2014. 62 percent of the world’s adult population has an account; up from 51 percent in 2011. Three years ago, 2.5 billion adults were unbanked. Today, 2 billion adults remain without an account.

A research on gender in sheep and goat keeping was conducted in Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu to assess gender roles in participation and decision making. Data was collected from the sample size of 233 respondents using a well structured pretested interview schedule. The study revealed that most of the regular activities in sheep and goat keeping were performed by women while the occasional activities by men, although, women participated to a certain extent. Decisions on all the regular activities were taken independently by women.

Climate Change 2014: Impacts,Adaptation, and Vulnerability is the second volume of the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) — Climate Change 2013/2014 — and was prepared by its Working Group II.

We surveyed 3199 first- and final-year medical and nursing students at 16 premier government institutions in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Malawi, Nepal, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia. The survey contained questions to identify factors that could predict students’ intentions to migrate. Primary outcomes were the likelihoods of migrating to work abroad or working in rural areas in the country of training within five years post-training. We assessed predictors of migration intentions using multivariable proportional odds models.

Dietary supplements, including vitamins and herbal products, are often used to treat self-diagnosed conditions and/or to promote health. We conducted a community-based survey in a rural population to assess consumers’ knowledge, practices, and attitudes regarding the use of dietary supplements. A total of 526 adults (≥ 18 years) completed the survey. Information collected included product(s) used, frequency and use in combination with prescription or over-the-counter medications, and perceptions of efficacy and safety.

The urban heat island (UHI), a common phenomenon in which surface temperatures are higher in urban areas than in surrounding rural areas, represents one of the most significant human-induced changes to Earth’s surface climate. Even though they are localized hotspots in the landscape, UHIs have a profound impact on the lives of urban residents, who comprise more than half of the world’s population. A barrier to UHI mitigation is the lack of quantitative attribution of the various contributions to UHI intensity (expressed as the temperature difference between urban and rural areas, ΔT).