This paper offers the first empirical assessment of the linkages between microfinance supported activities and adaptation to climate change. Specifically, the lending portfolios of the 22 leading microfinance institutions in two climate vulnerable countries

The increased flow of knowledge, resources, goods and services among nations that has occurred as a result of globalization has led to a major increase over the years in transport activity.

The International Transport Forum 2009 took place at a very difficult time, with finances drying up, companies failing, supply chains weakened, and protectionism on the increase. There are real fears that the transport sector will be seriously damaged by this sudden and profound downturn, with important implications for economies and societies.

The paper discusses potential biodiversity implications of different REDD design options that have been put forward in the international climate change negotiations and examines how the creation of additional biodiversity-specific incentives could be used to complement a REDD mechanism, so as to target biodiversity benefits directly.

Cities represent a challenge and an opportunity for climate change policy. As the hubs of economic activity, cities generate the bulk of GHG emissions and are thus important to mitigation strategies. Urban planning will shape future trends and the concentration of population, socio-economic activity, poverty

This paper compares model estimates of national and sectoral GHG mitigation potential across six key OECD GHG-emitting economies: Australia, Canada, the EU, Japan, Mexico and the US.

This paper highlights existing knowledge and information about a range of different types of mitigation support and outlines a structure for a future framework for MRV to provide greater accountability and transparency. Mitigation specific financial flows (i.e.

This paper first reviews proposals for the design of sectoral and related market mechanisms currently debated, both in the UNFCCC negotiations, and in different domestic legislative contexts. Secondly, it addresses the possible principles and technical requirements that Parties may wish to consider as the foundations for further elaboration of the mechanisms.

While efforts to integrate climate change adaptation will be led by developing country partners, international donors have a critical role to play in supporting such efforts as well as in integrating consideration of adaptation within their own plans and activities.This policy guidance paper advices on how to facilitate the integration of adaptation within development processes.

The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) published a policy brief summarizing OECD analyses showing that the cost of action to mitigate climate change would be minimized if a cost-effective set of policy instruments, with a focus on carbon pricing, were applied as broadly as possible across all emission sources, including all countries, sectors, and greenhouse gases.